Although President Donald Trump warned Canada on September 1 that he would exclude them from a new trade deal if Canada did not comply with its demands, it is not clear that the Trump administration has the power to do so without congressional approval. :34-6 According to reports by the Congressional Research Service (CRS), one was published in 2017 and another on July 26, 2018, it is likely that President Trump would need congressional approval for fundamental changes to NAFTA before the changes are implemented. :34-6 According to a 2013 article by Jeff Faux by the Economic Policy Institute, California, Texas, Michigan and other high-concentration manufacturing states were most affected by NAFTA job losses.  According to a 2011 article by EPI economist Robert Scott, the trade agreement has « lost or supplanted » some 682,900 U.S. jobs.  Recent studies have agreed with congressional Research Service reports that NAFTA has little influence on manufacturing employment and automation, accounting for 87% of manufacturing job losses.  The main provisions of NAFTA required a gradual reduction in tariffs, tariffs and other trade barriers between the three Member States, with some tariffs to be abolished immediately and others over a 15-year period. The agreement guaranteed duty-free access for a wide range of industrial products and goods traded between the signatories. « Domestic goods » have been granted to products imported from other NAFTA countries and prohibit all governments, local or provincial, from imposing taxes or tariffs on these products. Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders, who opposed the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal, called it « a continuation of other disastrous trade agreements such as NAFTA, CAFTA and normal, long-term trade relations with China. » He believes that free trade agreements have led to the loss of American jobs and lower U.S. wages.
Sanders said America needs to rebuild its production base with U.S. factories for well-paying jobs for the U.S. workforce, instead of relocating to China and elsewhere.    Although NAFTA has not kept all its promises, it has remained in force.